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Full text of "Topography, State of California."

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Geo F at ,n charge 

;;raphy by Duncar l 
Control by L F Biggs. W H Monahan, and 0. c . i 


: statc or c*li 

Edition o1 

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I . lo 

al i.i- of the ' nited States, rhi .'orl q in prog i 

-••_'. and more than if the area of the 

coui oui lyiug p dow been mappi d 

mi,.,! are widely di ate being 


lie Direi 
being published in s liei I n size, 

abou inehes. The four-sidi -I irea of land repre- 

ed ''ii .-in atlas sheet is bounded bj parallels and meridians 
and is called a quadrangle. The quadrangles mapped cover 
i of latitude by I of longitude, 30' of latitude by 30' of 
longitude, L5' of latitude by L5' of longitude, or smaller ai 

ill. mapped d pending lie scale u 

Several mployed 'I lie small© 

I'm' quadrangles covering 1°, is 1:250,000, or very nearly 4 
miles to an inch — thai on the ground is 

represented by I linear inch on the map. This scale is used 
for maps of the desert regions and tome ol lier pa 

pai i ni' the country, which is mapped 
by quadrangles coverin 

about '2 n ale, 

1:62,500, or about a mile to an inch, is used for quadra ng 
covei the unit selected for mapping thickly settled or 

industrially important areas. \ fourth scale, L: 31,680, < i one- 
li.-ili' mile in an inch, is employed for maps thai are to be used 

lunection with irrigation oi drainage, and :i few maps 
miuiiij are published on still larj er eales 

\ m: .' Uaska li 

now been 
msipped. One-third of the area mapped, or 10 | the 

Territory, has been covered oulj by reconnaissance work, the 
Its nt' w bich have been mapped on i bout LO mi 

'i inch. The maps of nearly all the remaining two-thi 
surveyed area have been published on a scale 
aboul -1 miles to an inch. These maps a 
each rep ' latitude I longil ude. A I 

I lial ai 'i ic importance, a; gregating about 

3,000 3quare miles, have been surveyed in itail and 

mapped "ii ;i scale of I :62,500 ; oj about a mile to an inch 

le Hawaiian Islands was begun in 1910 and 
the resulting maps are being published on a scale of I :62,500. 
shown on these atlas sheets or maps may be 
ed in thn e groups —1 1 I waU r, including seas, laki 

vamps, and other boi lud- 

iii.'in i. .- ucl 
railroads, and boundaries. The conventional si for 

bown below, wil li explan ariation? 

earlier mi 

and cam 
and the aea in blu bhosi 

n bo ■ bed are dr^ ai li 

shown li\ | 

Ri Lii I contour '<■ contour on 

One who follows a contour will gj) neither uphill uor downhill 

Inn mi :i !<■•, el The contour lines on the map il <>uls 

bap< s of the hills, mo o t heir 

elevations', The li if the sea coasl il • ontour line, 

the datum or zero of ele 1 in° mean i ea level. The 

contour at, . ■>;. "• I feel ab< el would bi the hore line 

or llw land to sink 20 feel 
slope i bii contour is fai from I u pn uent coai I . 
slope ii is neai i he coast, Where succes jive contour lini - 
are far apart on thi indicate 

they are clo i the^ ind slope ; and * here 

line they indicate a cliff. 
The manner in vs Inch contour tin altitude, form, 

ii the figure belov 

■ hills. In 
with .! hi parth iii 

d bar. * 
into which small ai row gulli< s. The hill on 

rated b ed al their lowi r ends 

!'li. hill on the li R at the 
r li • lope gradual!) back awa\ i'i 

ball i i In .I., n atun 

« in the sketch, bj 
contour lii 

Tl Ql ■ inti i :ii or the vertical distance 

ir and tin n I it the bottom of each map. 

interval differ aa ording to the character of the area 

mapped; in a Hal country ii mn i feet; in a 

mountainous region il rnaj bi O tour lines, 

fourth or fifth one, are made heaviei than the othi i 

.ui.l are accompanied iting elevation above sea 

The heights of man, points, nch as road i ■ ■- 

laki s, and bench marks, are >n the 

map in Ggun -•. which express the elevations to bin a 

nly. Mori i sad elevations of bench n . h at 

geodetic coordinates of triangulation stations, are published in 
-hi. I by the ( leological Survey. A bulletin per- 
taining to any State maj be bad on application. 

The works of man are shown in black, in which color all 
lettering also is printed. Boundaries, such as those of a State, 
county, cil * . land grant, tov nship, or reservation, are 

ntinuoui or broken lines of different kinds and weights. 
Public and through roads are shown b) fine double lim 
. and poor roads by dashed double lines; trails by d 
Each quadrangh mapped for the topograpliic al ! 
nated bj the nann of a principal town or of some prominent 
ii.-H ura 'i the quadrangle, and on the 

ili.-' nii ■ in ted the names of adjoining quadrant! 

which -ill:' e in pre pa i 

Tin sheets are sold al 10 cent* each in lots of less than 50 
ich in lot - of 50 oi more copies, whether 
of tin 

The topographic map is the base on which the geology and 
the mineral resources of a quadrangle are repn sented, the maps 
showing th tni bound together, with a description 
of the quadrangle, to form a folio of the ( reolo of the 
ulnii lio' pub- 
topographic .'i las sin el and logic folios covering 

any Si ii m will bi on application. 

^.pplicatio laps or folios should be accompanied by 

cash — the exact amount ost-office money ordi 

d be addres ed 

i in-: iMi'i i h i:. 

)(/tcal Sin 
Washington, 1' 
January, 1913, 

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